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How to build stair that is compliant with 2022 Ontario Building Code

Height over stair – 9.8.2.2 states clearance above each tread should be at least 77 inches for a standard residential home and 82 inches for others. The average height in Ontario is around 5 ft 11 (71 inches). This height over stairs will cover the majority of the population living in Ontario.

Minimal number of risers: 9.8.3.2 states at least three risers are needed per stair (stair like structure with less than three riser is not a classified as stair).

Minimal Height of stairs: A change that took effect in 2022 is an emphasis on flight. This term was added to section one of Ontario building code. In the old code, the vertical height between landing needs to be 3.7, the new code replaces the word landing with flight to clarify the location. Flight is steps between landing.

Rise, Run and Tread Depth for Rectangular Treads: Similar to height of stairs, the 2022 tread depth table clarify a few categories of stairs. The new 9.8.4.1 table as follows

Item

Column 1

Stair Type

Column 2

Max. Rise, mm, for All Steps

 

Column 3

Min. Rise, mm, for All Steps

Column 4

Max. Run, mm, for Rectangular Treads

Column 5

Min. Run, mm, for Rectangular Treads

1.Private stairs(1)200125355255
2.Public stairs(2)180125no limit280
3.Service stairs(3)no limit125355no limit
4.Stairs to unoccupied attic space(4)no limit125355no limit
5.Stairs to crawl spacesno limit125355no limit
6.Stairs that serve mezzanines not exceeding 20 m2 within live/work unitsno limit125355

no limit

 

Depth of tread: 10 inches is the new minimal depth per tread

Slope of tread: 1 in 50

Handrail: A handrail is required in almost every case except interior stair that has less than two rise, exterior stair that has less than three riser and small ramp that is not more than 400mm. The handrail can not be interrupted except by door way and newel post at changing direction. Height of handrail should be between 34 inches to 42 inches. (old code is 34-37). The handrail attachment piece can not be more than 1.2 meter apart. The first attachment piece can not be more than 300 mm from the end of the handrail.

Dimension of the landing

Item

Column 1

Application

Column 2

Landing Configuration

Column 3

Minimum Width, mm

Column 4

Length, mm

1.Stairs and ramps serving a house or an individual dwelling unitIn straight-run stair or ramp, or landing turning through less than 30°, within a dwelling unitWidth of stair or rampNot less than 860
  In straight-run exterior stair or ramp, or exterior landing turning through less than 30°Width of stair or rampNot less than 900
  Landing turning through an angle of 30° or more, but less than 90°Width of stair or ramp measured at right angle to path of travel(a)  Not less than 230 measured at the inside edge of the landing, and
    (b)  Not less than 370 measured 230 from the inside edge of landing or handrail
  Landing turning through not less than 90°Width of stair or ramp measured at right angle to path of travelNot less than width of stair or ramp landing
2.Stairs and ramps not serving a house or an individual dwelling unitIn straight-run stair or ramp, or landing turning through less than 30°Width of stair or clear width of rampLesser of required width of stair or clear width of ramp, or 1 100
  Landing turning through 30° or moreWidth of stair or clear width of ramp measured at right angle to path of travelNot less than width of stair or clear width of ramp